an ordinary campaign sickness disables or destroys three
times as many as the sword.
a march, from, April to November, the entire clothing
should be a colored flannel shirt, with a loosely buttoned
collar, cotton drawers, woolen pantaloons, shoes and stockings,
and a light-colored felt hat, with broad brim to protect
the eyes and face from the glare of the sun and from the
rain, and a substantial but not heavy coat when off duty.
is most effectually prevented by wearing a silk handkerchief
in the crown of the hat.
blankets are best, and if lined with brown drilling the
warmth and durability are doubled, while the protection
against dampness from lying on the ground is almost complete.
lie or sit down on the grass or bare earth for a moment;
rather use your hat a handkerchief, even, is a
great protection. The warmer you are the greater need
for this protection, as a damp vapor is immediately generated,
to be absorbed by the clothing, and to cool you off too
marching, or on other active duty, the more thirsty you
are the more essential is it to safety of life itself
to rinse out the mouth two or three times, and then take
a swallow of water at a time, with short intervals. A
brave French General, on a forced march. fell dead on
the instant by drinking largely of cold water, when snow
was on the ground.
sleep is essential to bodily efficiency, and to that alertness
of mind which is all important in an engagement; and few
things more certainly and more effectually prevent sound
sleep than eating heartily after sundown, especially after
a heavy march or desperate battle.
is more certain to secure endurance and capability of
long-continued effort, than the avoid once of everything
as a drink except cold water, not excluding coffee at
breakfast. Drink as little as possible of even cold water.
any sort of exhausting effort, a cup of coffee, hot or
cold, is an admirable sustainer strength, until nature
begins to recover herself.
eat heartily just before a great undertaking; because
the nervous power is irresistibly drawn to the stomach
to manage the food eaten, thus drawing off that supply
which the brain and muscle so much need.
persons will drink brandy, it is incomparably safer to
do so after an effort than before; for it can give only
a transient strength, lasting but a few minutes; but as
it can never be known how long any given effort is to
be kept in continuance, and if longer than the few minutes
the body becomes more feeble than it would have been without
the stimulus, it is clear that its use before an effort
is always hazardous and is always unwise.
go to sleep, especially after a great effort, even in
hot weather, without some covering over you.
all circumstances, rather than lie down on the bare ground,
lie in the hollow of two logs placed together, or across
several smaller pieces of wood, laid side by side; or
sit on your hat, leaning against a tree. A nap olden or
fifteen minutes in that position will refresh you more
than an hour on the bare earth, with the additional advantage
of perfect safety.
cut is less dangerous than a bullet wound and heals more
from any wound the blood spurts out in jets, instead of
a steady stream, you will die in a few minutes unless
it is unless it is remedied; because an artery has been
divided, and that takes the blood direct from the fountain
of life. To stop this instantly. tie a handkerchief or
other cloth very loosely between the wound and the heart;
put a stick, bayonet, or ramrod between the skin and the
handkerchief, and twist around until the bleeding ceases,
and keep it thus until the surgeon arrives.
the blood flows in a slow, regular stream, a vein has
been pierced, and the handkerchief must be on the other
side of the wound from the heart that is, below
bullet through the abdomen (belly or stomach) is more
certainly fatal than if aimed at the head or heart; for
in the latter cases the bill is often glanced off by the
bone, or follows round it under the skin; but when it
enters the stomach or bowels, from any direction, death
is inevitable under all conceivable circumstances, but
is scarcely ever instantaneous.
the whole beard grow, but not longer than some three inches.
This strengthens and thickens its growth, and thus makes
a more perfect protection for the lungs against dust,
and of the throat against winds and cold in winter, while
in the summer a greater perspiration of the skin is induced,
with an increase of evaporation; hence greater coolness
of the paris on the outside, while the throat is less
feverish, thirsty, and dry.
salts and fat meat in summer and all warm days.
possible, take a plunge into any lake or running stream
every morning as soon as you get up. If none at hand,
endeavor to wash the body all over as soon as you leave
your bed, for cleanliness acts like a charm against all
diseases, always either warding them off altogether, or
greatly mitigating their severity and shortening their
the hair of the head closely cut, say within an inch and
a half of the scalp in every part, repeated on the first
of each mouth, and wash the whole scalp plentifully in
cold water every morning.
woolen stockings and moderately loose shoes, keeping the
toe and finger nails always cut close.
is more important to wash the feet well every night than
to wash the face and hands of mornings, because it aids
in keeping the skin and nails soft, and to prevent chafing,
blisters and corns, all of which greatly interfere with
a soldier's duty.
most universally safe position. after all stunning, hurts
and wounds, is that of being placed on the back, the head
being elevated three or four inches only, aiding more
than any on thing else can do to equalize and restore
the proper circulation of the blood.
more weary you are after a march or other work, the more
easily will you take cold, if you remain still after it
is over, unless the moment you cease motion you throw
a coat or blanket over your shoulders. This precaution
should be taken in the warmest weather, especially if
there is even a slight air stirring.
greatest physical kindness you can show a severely-wounded
comrade, is first to place him on his back, and then run
with all your might for some water to drink. Not a second
ought to be lost. If no vessel is at hand, take your hat;
if no hat, off with your shirt, wring it out at once,
tie the arms in a knot, as also the lower end, thus making
a big, open at the neck only. A fleet person can convey
a bucket full half a mile in this way. I've seen a dying
man clutch at a single drop of water from the finger's
end, with the voraciousness of a famished tiger.
wet to the skin by rain or by swimming rivers. keep in
motion until the clothes are dried, and no harm will result.
it is possible, do, by all means, when you have to use
water for cooking or drinking from ponds or sluggish streams,
boll it well, and when cool shake it, or stir it, so that
the oxygen of the air shall get to ti, which greatly improves
it for drinking. This boiling arrests the process of fermentation
which arises from the presence of organic and inorganic
impurities, thus tending to prevent cholera and all bowel
diseases. If there is no time for boiling, at least strain
it through a cloth, even if you have to use a shirt or
men are hit in battle dressed in red where there are only
five dressed in a bluish grey "a difference of more
than two to one; green, seven; brown, six.
can be made almost ice cool in the hottest weather by
closely enveloping a filled canteen, or other vessel,
with woolen cloth, kept plentifully wetted and exposed.
on a march lie down the moment you halt for rest. Every
minute spent in that position refreshes more than five
minutes standing or loitering about.
daily evacuation of the bowels is indispensable to bodily
health, vigor and endurance; this is promoted in many
cases by stirring a tablespoonful of corn (Indian) meal
in a glass of water, and drinking it on rising in the